(米国)Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Overview and Safety/Pfizer COVID-19ワクチン情報(English)

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UPDATE
Given new evidence on the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, CDC has updated the guidance for fully vaccinated people. CDC recommends universal indoor masking for all teachers, staff, students, and visitors to K-12 schools, regardless of vaccination status. Children should return to full-time in-person learning in the fall with layered prevention strategies in place.

UPDATE
The White House announced that vaccines will be required for international travelers coming into the United States, with an effective date of November 8, 2021. For purposes of entry into the United States, vaccines accepted will include FDA approved or authorized and WHO Emergency Use Listing vaccines. More information is available here.

UPDATE
Travel requirements to enter the United States are changing, starting November 8, 2021. More information is available here.

Overview of COVID-19 VaccinesOverview of COVID-19 Vaccines

Updated Nov. 1, 2022

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What You Need to Know
There are four COVID-19 vaccines, which include primary series and boosters, recommended in the United States.
Vaccine recommendations are based on age, the first vaccine received, and time since last dose.
People who are moderately or severely immunocompromised have specific recommendations for COVID-19 vaccines, including boosters.
Side effects after a COVID-19 vaccine are common, however severe allergic reactions after getting a COVID-19 vaccine are rare.

Types of COVID-19 Vaccines Available

There are four approved or authorized vaccines in the United States.

Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are mRNA vaccines.
Novavax COVID-19 vaccine is a protein subunit vaccine.
Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen (J&J/Janssen) COVID-19 vaccine is a viral vector vaccine and can be given in some situations.

These vaccines are given as a shot in the muscle of the upper arm or in the thigh of a young child. COVID-19 vaccine ingredients are considered safe for most people. Nearly all of the ingredients in COVID-19 vaccines are ingredients found in many foods—fats, sugar, and salts. None of the COVID-19 vaccines affect or interact with our DNA and the following are not included in the vaccines:

No preservatives such as thimerosal or mercury or any other preservatives.
No antibiotics such as sulfonamide or any other antibiotics.
No medicines or therapeutics such as ivermectin or any other medications.
No tissues such as aborted fetal cells, gelatin, or any materials from any animal.
No food proteins such as eggs or egg products, gluten, peanuts, tree nuts, nut products, or any nut byproducts. (COVID-19 vaccines are not manufactured in facilities that produce food products).
No metals such as iron, nickel, cobalt, titanium, or rare earth alloys. They also do not have any manufactured products like microelectronics, electrodes, carbon nanotubes or other nanostructures, or nanowire semiconductors.
No latex. The vial stoppers used to hold the vaccine also do not contain latex.

After the body produces an immune response, it discards all of the vaccine ingredients, just as it would discard any substance that cells no longer need. This process is a part of normal body functioning.

Dosage: COVID-19 vaccine dose amounts can vary depending on the type of vaccine being given, or due to the recipient’s age.

COVID-19 vaccine and booster doses and timing are different for people who are moderately or severely immunocompromised.
Vaccines for Immunocompromised
Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines
mRNA vaccines use mRNA created in a laboratory to teach our cells how to make a protein—or even just a piece of a protein—that triggers an immune response inside our bodies. The mRNA from the vaccines is broken down within a few days after vaccination and discarded from the body.

Pfizer-BioNTech

Vaccine Schedule
Learn about the recommended timing between Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines and boosters for people:
6 Months–17 Years18 Years and OlderCOMIRNATY Name Change
After receiving U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval on August 23, 2021, the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for people ages 16 years and older began to be marketed under the COMIRNATY brand name. The vaccine was also FDA approved for pre-teens and teens ages 12–15 on July 8, 2022.  No change was made to the vaccine’s formula with the name change.
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine label remains for people ages 6 months–11 years since the vaccine is FDA authorized but not yet approved for these age groups.
Ingredients in Vaccine Formula for Children
The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 6 months–11 years contains only the following ingredients:

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Purpose

Purpose

Purpose

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Type of Ingredient

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Ingredient

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats)

Type of Ingredient

Lipids (fats)

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Ingredient

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Sugar and acid stabilizers

Type of Ingredient

Sugar and acid stabilizers

Sucrose (table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride

Ingredient

Sucrose (table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA):

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2
Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats):

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
(4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Sugar and acid stabilizers:

Dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate
Monobasic potassium phosphate
Potassium chloride (common food salt)
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Sucrose (basic table sugar)

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
Ingredients in Vaccine Formula for Teens and Adults
The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for teens and adults ages 12 years and older contains only the following ingredients:

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Purpose

Purpose

Purpose

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Type of Ingredient

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Ingredient

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats)

Type of Ingredient

Lipids (fats)

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Ingredient

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Sugar and acid stabilizers

Type of Ingredient

Sugar and acid stabilizers

Sucrose (table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride

Ingredient

Sucrose (table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride

Work together to help keep the vaccine in good condition (molecules remain stable) while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine in good condition (molecules remain stable) while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers-Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Pfizer Recipient Fact Sheet 6m-4y Maroon 06282022
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for People 5–11 Years of Age [646 KB, 8 pages] Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for People 12 Years of Age and Older [669 KB, 9 pages]

Other clinical information:

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA):

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2
Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats):

2[(polyethylene glycol (PEG))-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide1
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Cholesterol (plant derived)
((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Salts and sugar:

Sucrose (table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride

Purpose
Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers-Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Pfizer Recipient Fact Sheet 6m-4y Maroon 06282022
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for People 5–11 Years of Age [646 KB, 8 pages] Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for People 12 Years of Age and Older [669 KB, 9 pages]

Other clinical information:

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

Moderna

Vaccine Schedule
Learn about the recommended timing between Moderna COVID-19 vaccines and boosters for people:
6 Months–17 Years18 Years and OlderSpikevax Name Change
After receiving FDA approval on January 31, 2022, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for people ages 18 years and older began to be marketed under the Spikevax brand name. No change was made to the vaccine’s formula with the name change.
The Moderna vaccine name remains for people ages 6 months–17 years since the vaccine is authorized by the FDA but not yet approved for these age groups.
Ingredients
The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for everyone ages 6 months and older contains only the following ingredients:

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Purpose

Purpose

Purpose

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Type of Ingredient

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Ingredient

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats)

Type of Ingredient

Lipids (fats)

PEG2000-DMG: 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
BotaniChol® (non-animal origin cholesterol)
SM-102: heptadecane-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl) (6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy) hexyl) amino) octanoate

Ingredient

PEG2000-DMG: 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
BotaniChol® (non-animal origin cholesterol)
SM-102: heptadecane-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl) (6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy) hexyl) amino) octanoate

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Salt, sugar, acid stabilizers, and acid

Type of Ingredient

Salt, sugar, acid stabilizers, and acid

Sodium acetate
Sucrose (basic table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride
Acetic acid (the main ingredient in white household vinegar)

Ingredient

Sodium acetate
Sucrose (basic table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride
Acetic acid (the main ingredient in white household vinegar)

Work together to help keep the vaccine in good condition (molecules remain stable) while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine in good condition (molecules remain stable) while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 6m-5y 06172022 (fda.gov)
Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 6-11y 06172022 (fda.gov)
Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 12+ 06172022 (fda.gov)

Other clinical information:

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA):

Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2
Purpose

Provides instructions that the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats):

PEG2000-DMG: 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol
1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
BotaniChol® (non-animal origin cholesterol)
SM-102: heptadecane-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl) (6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy) hexyl) amino) octanoate

Purpose

Work together to help the mRNA enter cells.

Salt, sugar, acid stabilizers, and acid:

Sodium acetate
Sucrose (basic table sugar)
Tromethamine
Tromethamine hydrochloride
Acetic acid (the main ingredient in white household vinegar)

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, frozen, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 6m-5y 06172022 (fda.gov)
Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 6-11y 06172022 (fda.gov)
Moderna Recipients Fact Sheet 12+ 06172022 (fda.gov)

Other clinical information:

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

1 If you are allergic to polyethylene glycol (PEG), you should not get Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. If you are allergic to polysorbate, you should not get Novavax or J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor about your options.

Novavax protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine
Protein subunit vaccines contain pieces (proteins) of the virus that causes COVID-19. The virus pieces are the spike protein. The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine contains another ingredient called an adjuvant. It helps the immune system respond to that spike protein. After learning how to respond to the spike protein, the immune system will be able to respond quickly to the actual virus spike protein and protect you against COVID-19.

Novavax

Vaccine Schedule
Learn about the recommended timing between the Novavax COVID-19 vaccines and boosters for people:
12 – 17 Years18 Years and OlderWhen to Consider Getting a Monovalent Novavax Booster
You may get a monovalent Novavax booster if you are unable or unwilling to receive a Pfizer or Moderna updated (bivalent) COVID-19 booster and you meet the following requirements:

You are 18 years of age or older
You completed a COVID-19 vaccine primary series at least 6 months ago
You have not gotten any other booster dose

Ingredients
The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine contains only the following ingredients:

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Purpose

Purpose

Purpose

Protein

Type of Ingredient

Protein

SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein

Ingredient

SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein

Causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Purpose

Causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats)

Type of Ingredient

Lipids (fats)

Cholesterol
Phosphatidylcholine

Ingredient

Cholesterol
Phosphatidylcholine

Work together to help the recombinant spike protein enter cells.

Purpose

Work together to help the recombinant spike protein enter cells.

Adjuvant

Type of Ingredient

Adjuvant

Fraction-A and Fraction-C of Quillaja saponaria Molina extract

Ingredient

Fraction-A and Fraction-C of Quillaja saponaria Molina extract

Facilitates activation of the cells of the innate immune system.

Purpose

Facilitates activation of the cells of the innate immune system.

Salts, sugar, and acid

Type of Ingredient

Salts, sugar, and acid

Disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate
Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
Polysorbate-80
Potassium chloride (common food salt)
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (common food salt)
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate
Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid
Water

Ingredient

Disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate
Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
Polysorbate-80
Potassium chloride (common food salt)
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (common food salt)
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate
Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid
Water

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
The vaccine may also contain very small amounts of ingredients from the manufacturing stage, which can be found in the EUA Fact Sheet.

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
The vaccine may also contain very small amounts of ingredients from the manufacturing stage, which can be found in the EUA Fact Sheet.

Resources
Factsheet for recipients- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Novavax Patients Fact Sheet 07132022

Other clinical information:

Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information
Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers [1 MB, 26 pages]

Protein:

SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein
Purpose

Causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Lipids (fats):

Cholesterol
Phosphatidylcholine

Purpose

Work together to help the recombinant spike protein enter cells.

Adjuvant:
Fraction-A and Fraction-C of Quillaja saponaria Molina extract
PurposeFacilitates activation of the cells of the innate immune system.

Salts, sugar, and acid:

Disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate
Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
Polysorbate-80
Potassium chloride (common food salt)
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (common food salt)
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate
Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid
Water

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
The vaccine may also contain very small amounts of ingredients from the manufacturing stage, which can be found in the EUA Fact Sheet.
Resources
Factsheet for recipients- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Novavax Patients Fact Sheet 07132022

Other clinical information:

Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information
Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers [1 MB, 26 pages]

Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen (J&J/Janssen) viral vector COVID-19 vaccine
Viral vector vaccines use a harmless, modified version of a different virus (a vector virus), and not the virus that causes COVID-19. The vector virus delivers important instructions to our cells on how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19.

J&J/Janssen

Vaccine Schedule
Learn about the recommended timing between the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine and boosters for people:
18 Years and OlderWhen to Consider Getting J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine
In most situations, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Novavax COVID-19 vaccines are recommended over the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine for primary and booster vaccination due to the risk of serious adverse events. Vaccine recipients should talk to their healthcare provider about which vaccine is right for you. They must be informed of the risks and benefits of J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccination. The J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine may be considered in some situations, including for persons who:

Had a severe reaction after an mRNA vaccine dose or who have a severe allergy to an ingredient of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna (mRNA COVID-19 vaccines).
Would otherwise remain unvaccinated for COVID-19 due to limited access to Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna (mRNA COVID-19 vaccines), or to Novavax.
Wants to get the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine despite the safety concerns.
Is 18 years and older.

Ingredients
The J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine contains only the following ingredients:

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Type of Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Ingredient

Purpose

Purpose

Purpose

A harmless version of a virus unrelated to the COVID-19 virus

Type of Ingredient

A harmless version of a virus unrelated to the COVID-19 virus

Recombinant, replication-incompetent Ad26 vector, encoding a stabilized variant of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein

Ingredient

Recombinant, replication-incompetent Ad26 vector, encoding a stabilized variant of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Sugars, salts, acid, and acid stabilizer

Type of Ingredient

Sugars, salts, acid, and acid stabilizer

Polysorbate-80
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Citric acid monohydrate (closely related to lemon juice)
Ethanol (a type of alcohol)

Ingredient

Polysorbate-80
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Citric acid monohydrate (closely related to lemon juice)
Ethanol (a type of alcohol)

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.

Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers
Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers

Other clinical information:

J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

A harmless version of a virus unrelated to the COVID-19 virus:

Recombinant, replication-incompetent Ad26 vector, encoding a stabilized variant of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein
Purpose

Provides instructions the body uses to build a harmless piece of a protein from the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein causes an immune response that helps to protect the body from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future.

Sugars, salts, acid, and acid stabilizer:

Polysorbate-80
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
Trisodium citrate dihydrate
Sodium chloride (basic table salt)
Citric acid monohydrate (closely related to lemon juice)
Ethanol (a type of alcohol)

Purpose

Work together to help keep the vaccine molecules stable while the vaccine is manufactured, shipped, and stored until it is ready to be given to a vaccine recipient.
Resources
Fact sheets for recipients and caregivers- Ingredients, how vaccine is administered, and other details from the FDA:

Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers
Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers

Other clinical information:

J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Product Information

How Well COVID-19 Vaccines Work

People who are up to date have lower risk of severe illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19 than people who are unvaccinated or who have only received the primary series.
Updated COVID-19 boosters can help restore protection that has decreased since previous vaccination. The updated boosters provide added protection against the recent Omicron subvariants that are more contagious than the previous ones. The recent subvariants, BA.4 and BA.5, are very closely related to the original variant, Omicron, with very small differences between itself and the original variant.
CDC will continue to provide updates as we learn more.

Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines
COVID-19 vaccines have undergone—and will continue to undergo—the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. Evidence from the hundreds of millions of COVID-19 vaccines already administered in the United States, and the billions of vaccines administered globally, demonstrates that they are safe and effective.
Side Effects

Side effects that happen within 7 days of getting vaccinated are common but are mostly mild. Sometimes they may affect a person’s ability to do daily activities.
Side effects throughout the body (such as fever, chills, tiredness, and headache) are more common after the second dose of a Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Novavax COVID-19 vaccine.

Adverse Events

Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare but can happen.
There is a rare risk of myocarditis and pericarditis associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, mostly among males ages 12–39 years. The rare risk may be further reduced with a longer interval between the first and second dose.
Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis have also been reported in people who received Novavax COVID-19 vaccine.
There is a potential cause-and-effect relationship between J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine and a rare and serious adverse event. It is blood clots with low platelets (thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS). TTS occurs at a rate of about 4 cases per million Janssen’s Johnson and Johnson doses and has resulted in deaths. Because of this risk, vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines other than J&J/Janssen vaccine is preferred.

Learn more about vaccine safety monitoring after a vaccine is authorized or approved for use.
If You Are Allergic to an Ingredient in a COVID-19 Vaccine or Had a Previous Severe Allergic Reaction

If in the past you have had a severe allergic reaction to an ingredient in an COVID-19 vaccine or if you have a known allergy to an ingredient in a COVID-19 vaccine, you should not get that COVID-19 vaccine. Examples:

If you are allergic to polyethylene glycol (PEG), you should not get Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.
If you are allergic to polysorbate, you should not get Novavax or J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccines.

If you aren’t able to get one type of COVID-19 vaccine, talk to your doctor about your options for getting a different type of COVID-19 vaccine.

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How can you prepare for vaccination?
What can you expect during and after your vaccination?

Getting Your COVID-19 Vaccine

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Last Updated Nov. 1, 2022 Source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases

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